TiO2, a well-known catalyst, offers several advantages, such as non-toxicity, exceptional chemical durability, and favorable photocatalytic activity, especially in the degradation of organic contaminants in industrial effluents. It has been extensively employed in environmental protection. However, its wide band gap of 3.2 eV and rapid carrier recombination significantly limit its practical application in the field of solar energy. Scholars have extensively investigated methods to mitigate these drawbacks, with a focus on introducing defects, doping specific elements, or incorporating appropriate semiconductors for modification. For instance, g-C3N4 interacts with TiO2 to form a heterojunction structure, including traditional Type II[1] and Z scheme[2], which can alter the movement of charge carriers effectively. Introducing defects to reduce the band gap can enhance visible light absorption[3]. In general, the most common methods used to enhance photocatalytic activity involve the utilization of noble metals or metal doping, as these elements can be easily incorporated into the titanium dioxide lattice through photo-reduction or electrochemical deposition. These doping techniques are often straightforward and efficient. Furthermore, nanoscale particles can effectively improve photocatalytic activity, although the exact mechanism of the nanoscale effect is not yet fully understood.

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